The more of the following risk factors you have, the more likely you are to have or develop osteoporosis:
- A fracture not related to major trauma.
- A family history of osteoporosis or fractures.
- Increasing age over 65.
- Early menopause.
- For women, being postmenopausal (or having had their ovaries removed).
- For men, abnormally low levels of testosterone—for instance, because of treatment for prostate cancer.
- Smoking, past or present.
- Being white, Hispanic, or Asian.
- Being small-boned or underweight (usually defined for women as less thanabout 127 pounds or BMI under 20).
- Above-average loss of height.
- Getting little weight-bearing exercise.
- Celiac disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, anorexia, and certain other chronic disorders.
- Long-term use of drugs such as certain anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, for reflux disease), or excessive thyroid hormones.
- Inadequate consumption of calcium, vitamin D, and other bone-building nutrients.
- Heavy alcohol consumption (which weakens bones and increases the risk of falls).
Published August 15, 2017